Visceral surface of liver features
This specimen shows the visceral (inferior) surface of the liver.
The liver is the largest gland of the body, that is located in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity. It is mainly concerned with the secretion of bile necessary for the digestion of fats and also detoxifies the blood. Excessive alcohol consumption can cause fibrosis of the liver cells (hepatocytes). This condition is clinically termed as cirrhosis of the liver. The visceral surface of the liver is related to several abdominal organs (viscera), such as the lower end of the oesophagus, the stomach, the duodenum, the transverse colon, the right kidney and the right suprarenal gland. These structures form impressions on the liver.
The liver can be broadly divided into two lobes, namely the right lobe and the left lobe. The other lobes that can be identified in the specimen are the caudate lobe and the quadrate lobe. The other parts/structures that can be identified in this specimen are the porta hepatis, the gall bladder, the ligamentum teres, the inferior venacava.
The caudate lobe presents two extensions known as the caudate process and the papillary process. The caudate process forms the superior boundary of the Epiploic foramen.
The quadrate lobe is bounded by the porta hepatis posteriorly, the fissure for the ligamentum teres on the right and the fossa for the gall bladder on the left. It is related to the duodenum.
The porta hepatis is a large opening seen in the visceral surface of the liver. This opening allows the passage of the hepatic artery, the portal vein and the hepatic ducts. The hepatic artery carries about 20% of the oxygenated blood, the portal vein carries about 80% of the nutritious blood to the liver and the hepatic ducts carries bile away from the liver into the gall bladder.
The gall bladder is a small pouch-like structure, located in the fossa for the gall bladder in the visceral surface of the liver. The bile, secreted by the liver, is stored and concentrated in the gall bladder. Whenever fatty food reaches the duodenum, the bile is released through the bile duct. Excessive accumulation and concentration of the bile in the gall bladder, leads to a clinical condition, known as Cholelithiasis (Gall stones). This condition generally is observed in fair, fat, fertile, females of forty years.
The ligamentum teres is an embryological remnant of the obliterated left umbilical vein. It lodges in the fissure which lies to the right of the quadrate lobe. Another embryological remnant that can be recognized in the specimen is the ligamentum venosum. It is the embryological remnant of the ductus venosus. It lodges in the fissure that lies to the right of the fissure for the inferior vena cava.
Inferior vena cava:
The Inferior vena cava lies in a groove situated towards the left of the fissure for the ligamentum venosum. It receives the openings of hepatic veins.