Thoracic and abdominal viscera of fetus
The specimen reveals the fetal thoracic and abdominal viscera. The lungs can be appreciated here developing in the thoracic cavity. In between them lies the developing heart. The thoracic organs are separated from the abdominal organs by the diaphragm. In the abdominal cavity, the fetal liver is observed occupying the major portion. It is a major site of development of the human immune system. The stomach and coils of intestine are also observed. The urinary bladder is observed in the lower part of the abdomen (abdominopelvic in children), because the pelvic cavity is small and is still developing.
The umbilical cord is a conduit between the developing embryo or fetus and the placenta. It contains two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein, buried within Wharton's jelly. The umbilical vein continues towards the transverse fissure of the liver, where it splits into two. One of these branches joins with the hepatic portal vein (connecting to its left branch), which carries blood into the liver. The second branch (known as the ductus venosus) bypasses the liver and flows into the inferior vena cava, which carries blood towards the heart. The two umbilical arteries branch from the internal iliac arteries and pass on either side of the urinary bladder into the umbilical cord, completing the circuit back to the placenta
The umbilicus is a protruding, flat, or hollowed area/scar on the abdomen that represents the attachment site of the fetal end of the umbilical cord.
The falciform ligament is a broad and thin peritoneal ligament related to the liver. It is sickle-shaped and is a remnant of the ventral mesentery of the fetus.