Urinary bladder, prostate, seminal vesicle, ureter and vas deferens
These specimens show the male reproductive organs with the urinary system.
The male reproductive organs consist of the testes, the epididymis, the vas deferens, the seminal vesicles, the ejaculatory ducts and the prostate. The urinary system shows the urinary bladder, the ureters and the urethra.
The ureters are a pair of tubes that convey urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. They are 25cms long. Multiple arteries supply the ureters. Ureteric calculus can lead to ureteric colic (severe pain due to stones in ureters).
The urinary bladder is a muscular bag that temporarily stores urine. It is located in the lesser pelvis behind the pubic symphysis. An empty urinary bladder is tetrahedral in shape. The ureters open into the posterior aspect of the urinary bladder. The neck of the urinary bladder is directed downwards and becomes continuous with the urethra at the internal urethral orifice. In males, the prostate gland is situated onto the urethra and the neck of the urinary bladder. In case of benign prostatic hypertrophy, the median lobe of prostate enlarges producing an elevation within the urinary bladder known as uvula vesicae. This uvula vesicae obliterates the internal urethral orifice, thereby making the passage of urine more difficult.
The vas deferens is the distal continuation of the tail of the epididymis. It is 45 cm long and conveys sperms to the ejaculatory ducts. It lies within the spermatic cord, traverses through the inguinal canal and at the deep inguinal ring, it passes in the pelvis. It crosses the ureter and bends acutely to pass anteromedially between the posterior surface of the bladder and the upper pole of the seminal vesicle. At the base of the prostate, the vas deferens joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct.
The two seminal vesicles are sacculated, contorted tubes located between the urinary bladder and the rectum. Each vesicle is approximately 5 cm long. On each sides, they are related to the vas deferens and the termination of the ureter. After puberty the vesicles form sac-like structures which contribute up to 85% of the seminal fluid.
The prostate is a pyramidal fibromuscular gland which surrounds the prostatic urethra from the base of the urinary bladder to the membranous urethra. The gland presents numerous lobes. Within each lobe, there are numerous secretory acini. As age advances, these secretions could get calcified to form the prostatic concretions. In case of benign prostatic hypertrophy, the median lobe of prostate enlarges producing an elevation within the urinary bladder known as uvula vesicae. This uvula vesicae obliterates the internal urethral orifice, thereby making the passage of urine more difficult.