Femoral artery and its branches
In this specimen we can see the Femoral artery which is the main artery of the lower limb. It is a continuation of external iliac artery at the mid inguinal point. It gives three superficial branches in the femoral triangle which are superficial external iliac, superficial epigastric and superficial external pudendal. It also gives three deep branches which are deep external pudendal, muscular branches and profunda femoris. The profunda femoris is an important branch of femoral artery which provides medial circumflex, lateral circumflex and three perforating branches. The profunda femoris artery continues as the fourth perforating artery. Profunda femoris is the main artery which supply the back of thigh. We can also see muscles of the thigh in this specimen- Iliacus, pectineus, Adductor longus, Gracilis, Tensor fascia lata, Vastus intermedius, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Cut part of Sartorius and rectus femoris.
External iliac artery:
The external iliac artery is a branch of the common iliac artery arising as a bifurcation from the abdominal aorta. It passes along the pelvic brim and provides two large branches - the inferior epigastric artery and a deep circumflex artery. These vessels supply blood to the muscles and skin of the lower abdominal wall. The external iliac artery then passes beneath the inguinal ligament in the lower part of the abdomen and continues as the femoral artery.
Mid inguinal point:
It is a mid-point of an imaginary line that extends between the anterior superior iliac spine and pubic symphysis. It is different from the mid-point of the inguinal ligament. The latter is the mid-point of the ligament that extends between the anterior superior iliac spine and pubic tubercle.
Femoral triangle is a triangular space in the upper third of the thigh below the inguinal ligament. It is bounded medially by the adductor longus muscle and laterally by the Sartorius. The main contents of the femoral triangle are: Femoral nerve and its branches, femoral artery and its branches, femoral vein and its tributaries, lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh, femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve, and deep inguinal lymph nodes.