Posterior relations of the kidney
This specimen shows the kidneys from the posterior view.
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped excretory organs situated on the posterior abdominal wall on either side of the vertebral column. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney due to the pressure exerted by the liver on the right side. Upper part of the posterior surface is related to the diaphragm and the 11th and 12th ribs on the left kidney and only the 12th rib on the right kidney. Lower part of the posterior surface of both the kidneys is related to the psoas major, the quadratus lumborum and the transversus abdominis muscles from medial to lateral. The other structures recognized in this specimen are the Abdominal aorta, the Inferior vena cava, the renal pelvis, the left renal artery, the right renal artery, the left renal vein.
The diaphragm is a dome-shaped, musculo-aponeurotic partition between the thoracic and the abdominal cavities. In the center it presents a central tendon. It has openings for the passage of structures. Posterior part of the diaphragm is related to the kidneys posterosuperiorly.
Since the right kidney is slightly lower than the left kidney, the right kidney is related to 11th rib only and the left kidney is related to the 11th and the 12th ribs.
The psoas major muscle arises from the lumbar vertebrae and insert into the lesser trochanter of femur.
The quadratus lumborum takes origin from the iliac crest and insert into the 12th rib.
The transversus abdominis is the muscle of the anterior abdominal wall. It arises from the thoracolumbar fascia and inserts into the aponeurosis on the anterior abdominal wall.
Inferior vena cava:
The Inferior vena cava lies to the right of the midline and receives the renal veins (right and left).
The abdominal aorta lies to the right of the midline and gives rise to the renal arteries. The renal arteries supply the kidneys.
Left renal artery:
The left renal artery is a branch of abdominal aorta. It passes through the hilum and supply the left kidney. It gives the inferior suprarenal artery to supply the left suprarenal gland.
Right renal artery:
The right renal artery is a branch of abdominal aorta. It passes through the hilum and supply the right kidney. It gives the inferior suprarenal artery to supply the right suprarenal gland.
Left renal vein:
The left renal vein drains the venous blood from the kidneys into the inferior vena cava. The important tributaries of the left renal vein are the left gonadal vein and the left suprarenal vein.
The renal pelvis is the initial part of the ureters. Renal pelvis is formed by the coalescence of two to three major calyces within the kidneys and extends up to the lower poles of the kidneys. Thereafter, the renal pelvis continues as the ureters.